For a better understanding of technical terms, the CELESC prepared a comprehensive glossary with all references to a better understanding of the site visitors.


ABCE Brazilian Association of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency.
Abeer Brazilian Association of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency.
Aben Brazilian Nuclear Energy Association.
Abrace Brazilian Association of Large Electricity Consumers.
Abraceel Brazilian Association of Electricity Traders.
Abradee Brazilian Association of Electricity Distributors.
Abrage Brazilian Association of Large Electricity Generation Companies.
Abrate Brazilian Association of Large Companies Electric Power Transmission.
Account for the Variation in the Parcel A (CVA) Mechanism set up in October 2001 for compensation for varying values of items of non-manageable costs (Parcel A) occurring between annual tariff increases of energy distribution. On the date of the annual adjustment, if the CVA is negative, there are a rate transfer . If the account is positive, the balance is used to shoot down the annual tariff adjustment.
ANA National Water Agency.
Aneel National Electric Energy Agency.
ANP National Petroleum Agency.
Apine National Petroleum Agency.
Assured Demand Demands that must necessarily be available to the consumer by the dealer at the point of delivery, according to the amount and duration of the contract.
Assured Energy It is the contractual definition of the amount of energy that a given plant generates. The assured energy of each plant is a fraction of the total generation capacity of the national grid and is based on this definition that the remuneration of the plant is taken, regardless of the amount of energy actually generated.
Average Interruption Duration per consumer (DEC) It is the contractual definition of the amount of energy that a given plant generates. The assured energy of each plant is a fraction of the total generation capacity of the national grid and is based on this definition that the remuneration of the plant is taken, regardless of the amount of energy actually generated.
Average Long Term (MLT) Average of a natural energy calculated from a time series. The MLT is linked to the amount of rain that feeds the flow of the rivers that feed the hydroelectric reservoirs. There is a MLT for each subsystem (North, South, Northeast and Southeast / Mid – West)


Bilateral Agreements These are Buying and selling energy contracts in volumes freely agreed between two parties (market players) without the participation of Aneel or MSA contracts. In these contracts and defined the amount of energy contracted. Energy prices do not appear in these contracts
Billable Demand Demand used to calculate the invoice to be charged to the consumer or dealer.
Blackout Insurance (Emergency Capacity Charge) – Amount paid by energy consumers to cover the rent of 58 power plants with a generating capacity up to 2,154 MW in case of risk of power outage. The low-income consumers are free of charge, which began to be charged in March 2002 with R$ 0.0049 per kWh. The value, which can be revised every three months, increased to R$ 0.0057 per kWh in June 2002. The distributors pass on the amount collected from consumers to CBEE, in charge of Emergency Power Program. Expired in June 2006.
Blue tariff Hour-seasonal structured type of tariff which allows a differentiated consumption tariffs to industrial consumers according to time of use of electricity.
Brazilian Chamber of Investors in Electric Energy (CBIEE) Created on June 6, 2002, this chamber replaces the Board of Management of Electricity Crisis (GCE), established in May 2001 to manage the energy rationing and the problems of the power sector. The CGSE is a part of the National Energy Policy Council (CNPE) of MME and is headed by the foreign minister. Among its tasks is to continue to work and studies previously coordinated by GCE.
Brazilian Trader of Emergency Energy (CBEE) A federal public company established in August 29, 2001 (Provisional Measure 2,209), according to guidelines of GCE, and linked to the MME. Is intended to make workable the increased generation capacity and supply of electricity from any source in the short term, within the Emergency Energy Program.


Captive Consumer Consumer allowed to purchase power only from the concessionaire operating the network to which it is connected.
Class tariff System in which charging values are determined according to the characteristics of distribution or supplement. Classes are divided in residential, rural, commercial, industrial, government, public lighting, public service and personal consumption.
Clean Energy Energy that produces no waste pollutants, such as solar and wind.
Compensation for use of Water Resources (CFURH) Amount paid by utilities and companies authorized to produce electricity, as compensation for the use of water resources for this purpose. The charge amounts to 6.75% of the energy generated and the amount collected is managed by Aneel. Municipalities affected by dams (with the construction of power plants) receives 45% of the total collected. Equal amount is allocated to states where there are the dams. The remaining 10% is sent to the Union
Co – generation Process that allows the simultaneous production of electricity, steam and thermal energy from a single fuel source such as natural gas, industrial waste, biomass and others. The process of burning this fuel produces thermal energy (heat) and at the same time, move the generators to produce electricity.
Consumption tariff Amount in current currency charged according to consumption per kilowatt/hour (kWh), or other suitable unit.
Consumer Energy Council Representation of consumers created by each of the electricity distributors. With consultative status, the function of the Council is to advise, analyze and evaluate issues related to the supply, rates and adequacy of services provided by the company. ‘
Consumer Person or entity who requests to the concessionaires the supply of electricity, thereby assuming responsibility for paying bills and other obligations imposed by Aneel.
Contract to Purchase Obligation (take or pay) Type of contract used for the purchase of natural gas for thermal power plants. It provides the obligation to purchase a minimum amount of fuel. In this type of contract, even if the fuel is not used, it is necessary to make the payment for the minimum amount the price previously determined.
Contribution for Intervention on Economic Activities (CIDE) Contribution imposed on import and sale of petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas and their derivatives and ethanol fuel. The funds raised are used to pay subsidies to prices or transport alcohol fuel, natural gas and their derivatives, petroleum products, to finance environmental projects related to the oil and gas industry and the financing of infrastructure programs – Created by Law 10,336 of December 2001.
Contracted Demand Demand stipulated in the contract, continuously available to the consumer or dealer and which will be fully paid, whether or not used during the billing period.
Cross subsidization Gap between fees charged to different categories of consumers, through which residential consumers pay higher tariffs in order to subsidize lower tariffs for industrial consumers. This mechanism prevents.
Curve Indicator Guide to tracking of water level in the reservoirs of hydroelectric plants.


Daylight Saving Time Daylight saving is adopted in most of the national territory, in the period from October to February, where spring and summer offer longer days than nights. It was first adopted in Brazil in 1931 and since 1985 has been played every year. The summer schedule 2001/2002 (14 October 2001 to 17 February 2002) was the 28th adoption of this measure in the country. It is implemented through a presidential decree.
Deficit Cost Energy prices in the short term (spot) market in a situation of energy rationing. It flags the opportunity cost of producing electricity when there are scarcity. It reflects the economic losses to society caused by the forced reduction in energy supply.
Demand Average instantaneous electrical power requested by the consumer or dealer for a specified period.
Dispatch Definition by ONS, the amount of energy that a plant will generate at a given time.
Dry Season Period Characterized by the rainfall reduction. In the Southeast, Central – West and Northeast dry period lasts seven consecutive months, from May to November. In the South, the rains are distributed throughout the year, but the months of June and July are usually the driest. In the North, with the exception of northern Amazonas and Roraima, the period of autumn and winter (April to September) is drier. In the northern Amazonas and Roraima the dry season occurs from December to May.


Electric Power Services Inspectional tariff (TFSEE) Created in 1996 (Law 9247), the fee is charged to distributors, auto producers and independent power producers. It has a value equivalent to 0.5% of annual economic benefit earned by these operators, calculated through a determined formula. The amount is collected directly by Aneel monthly, to fund the implementation of the agency´s operation.
Electrical grid Set of substations, cables and other equipment connected together to conduct electricity from generation plants to consumers.
Electrical Installation Range of civil engineering works, buildings, machinery, lines and fittings for use in the production, conversion, transformation, transmission, distribution and use of electricity.
Electricity-intensive companies Industrial consumers for which the energy expenses represent a significant portion of production costs. Some examples are the industries of paper, iron, alloys, soda – chlorine and industrial gases.
Electricity meter Device to measure the amount of electric energy consumed.
Emergency Energy Program Created by GCE in 2001, the program aims to provide “insurance” against any imbalances between supply and demand of energy by 2005. The program works as a guarantee of energy supply until normal conditions of energy supply to the national grid are restored. For its emergency nature, the program contracted through CBEE, 2,155 MW by the year 2005.
Energy Auctions Mechanism adopted by the federal government to the state generators can sell cheaper, old energy without compromising the market pricing and not exclude new investors in the sector. To the extent that the original contracts ended, from 2003, the energy that was contracted will be sold through auctions.
Energy Development Account (CDE) Subsidy created to make competitive alternative energy sources such as wind and biomass, and to promote the universalization of electricity services.Besides alternative sources, the CDE covers the costs of thermal power plantswhich had started to operate in 1998 and the installation of natural gas in order to transportation.The resources will come from annual payments made in respect of public uses, fines imposed by ANEEL after 2003, the annual fees paid by agents to sell energy to final consumers. Will last for 25 years and is considered the successor to the CCC.
Energy Reallocation Mechanism (MRE) Trade process in which energy generators under the aegis of the Wholesale Energy Market, share the financial risks associated with the centralized dispatch of NOS. By the MRE, each plant is responsible for generating a certain amount pre – established energy (guaranteed energy). Thus, ONS can set a larger or smaller volume of generation to a plant without affecting it economically
Equivalent Interruption of Frequency Energy (FE) Number of interruptions in electricity distribution occurred, on average over the observation period, in each consumer unit of a given set.
Exceeded Demand Portion of the demand that exceeds the value of the contracted demand.
Exchange risk Term used to define the risk that investors in thermoelectric were submitted at the moment of acquisition of natural gas in dollars and selling of the energy generated in reais. This risk was preventing funding for new projects, since the exchange rate can only be adjusted once a year. In 2001, during the energy crisis, the government settled the matter, and since then Petrobras, supplier of natural gas, assumes the cost of the gap between the two currencies over a period of 12 months and passes it on to the thermoelectric companies when the contracts are readjusted.
Extraordinary Review Part of concession contracts which can be requested at the time of the Annual Readjustment, whenever a concessionaire judges that a specific event caused economic or financial imbalance. Aneel owns the right to grant or not the adjustment requested.


Fator X A factor that works as a tool for the allocation of efficiency gains of the concessionaire with its consumers. Provided in concession agreements between undertakings providing public service of electricity and Aneel, the X factor is a correction factor to the rate increase for the main purpose of inducing the search for improved economic efficiency of each company.
Fiscal tariff Amount declared by the contract grantor, in current currency. This fee is used to determine the investment limit of the distributors as well as the financial contribution of the consumer.
Fossil Fuel Consumption Account (CCC) Account created in 1993, aims to cover costs of using fossil fuels, such as diesel and coal used in thermal power generation in the interconnected and isolated (areas not served by electrification service) systems. The distributors collect the monthly rate equivalent to its share (in proportion to the market served by each company) value. This fund is managed by Eletrobras. The annual value is set by Aneel.
Free energy Non-contracted energy and commercialized in the short term (spot) market.


Gato (Irregular Connection) Illegal electrical connection without hiring the electricity supply by the distributor service.
Generation Reserve Hiring long-term thermal energy, including by the government, with a generating capacity costs apportioned among consumers. The goal is to reduce dependence on power generation through rains that feed the reservoirs of hydroelectric plants. It is different from anti safe – blackout (emergency capacity charge) because the generation reserve would be available indefinitely in the system, while the emergency power is temporary.
Global Reversion Reserve (RGR) Annual quota, created in 1971 (Law 5.655), added to the costs of the concessionaires to fund expansion and improvement of public electricity services, as well as the Procel program. The amount is collected in monthly basis by Eletrobrás, responsible for managing the resources.
Grantee of a public service Physical or legal person who holds a federal permit for construction work of transmission or distribution of power intended for their private consumption
Grantor Union, states or municipalities that delegate the right to operate public services through concessions, permits or authorizations.
Grid tariff Tariff that can be created to remunerate the use of the distribution network for energy transmission, it has yet to be approved by Power Industry Revitalization Commission (CGSE). The objective is to charge free consumers, who purchase energy directly from producers for the use of the distribution system.


Hydroelectric Power Electricity produced by harnessing the hydroelectric potential of the river. The water spins the turbine, transforming hydraulic energy into mechanical energy which, in its turn, is transformed into electrical energy.


Independent Power Producer (IPP) Official who has a license or authorization from the grantor to produce electrical energy for sale, or part, at the risk of the agent itself.
Individual Interruption Duration per Consumer Unit DIC) Interval of time in a period observed in each consumer unit, it was interrupted the distribution of electricity.
Initial Agreements They are buying and selling long-term energy agreements signed between generators and distributors, from distributors and dealers or contracts between generators and generators. Energy prices marketed by these contracts are set by ANEEL.
Installed Capacity Total generating capacity of all turbines in a power plant.
Interruption Frequency by Individual Consumer Unit (FIC) Number of interruptions in electricity distribution in a given period observed in each consumer unit.


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KiloVolt (kV) Unit voltage measurement. A kV represents 1,000 Volts (V).
KiloWatt (kW) A kW Represents 1,000 watts. The energy consumption is represented by the number of kW spent on a period of 1 hour (kWh). Megawatt (MW) has 1 million Watts. Gigawatt (GW) Represents one billion watts. The terawatt (TW) has a trillion watts.


Light in the Countryside National Rural Electrification Program, created by the federal government in December 1999. Aims to bring electricity to one million rural properties and homes across the country. Coordinated by the MME, is developed by Eletrobras with proceeds from the Global Reversion Reserve (RGR).
Line Range of conductors, insulators and fittings, used for transporting or distributing electricity.
Low Income Consumer Residential consumer served by single-phase circuit that has had within the last 12 months, average monthly consumption lower of 80 kWh / month. Consumers who spend between 80 and 220 kWh / month will also be considered low-income, but the criteria are yet to be defined by Aneel. The definition contained in Law 10,438 (2002).


MAE Price (PMAE) Value of electricity traded in short-term market (spot market). The MAE price varies according to the relation between supply and demand of energy.
Manageable Costs Costs that depend essentially on the effectiveness of corporate management, such as personnel expenses, materials acquisition, payment of third-party services, other expenses and remuneration. Also called controllable costs are indexed to the variation of the General Market Price Index (IGP-M) from Fundação Getúlio Vargas to calculate the annual tariff adjustment provided in the concession contracts.
Marginal Cost of Operation Cost per unit of energy produced to cater an increase load on the system
Maximum Continuous Interruption Duration per Consumer Unit (DMIC) Maximum time of continuous disrupting in the electricity supply to a consumer unit.
Mechanism of Rationing Risk Aversion An instrument created to indicate the possibility of a power outage in a period of two years. The mechanism change the formation of energy price based on rationing risk. The higher the risk, the higher the price. The rationing risk is calculated based on the water level of reservoirs in relation to the expected in safety curve.
Merchant plants Plants that do not have energy sale contracts. The production is negotiated in the short-term market (Spot market).
Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) Created in 1960, the MME is currently undergoing a process of change due to the energy crisis experienced by the country in 2001. With its new structure, the MME will be able to formulate policies and plans for short, medium and long term, and also to propose preventive or corrective measures to ensure the reliability of power supply to the country.
It is up to MME ensure the cyclical and structural balance between supply and demand of electricity. In the mining sector, the MME acts to promote the development of this industry in the country.


National Energy Balance (NEB) Document produced annually by the Department of Energy with the aim of presenting the energy fluxes of primary and secondary sources of energy, from production to final consumption in key sectors of the economy.
National Energy Policy Council (CNPE) The CNPE was created in August 1997. It is the advisory body to the President of the Republic, which aims to formulate policies and guidelines for the energy sector.
National Interconnected System (SIN) Facilities responsible for the supply of power to all electrically interconnected regions. It is formed by the generating companies in South, Southeast, Central – West, Northeast and part of the northern region, with installed capacity of 67,987 MW. By the end of 2000, the transmission network consisted of 70,000 km of transmission lines, according to ONS data. This allows the Electro-integration between production and transmission systems to supply of the consumer market.
National Program for Energy Conservation (Procel) The objective of this program is to promote the streamlining of production and consumption of electricity in the country to eliminate waste and consequently reduce costs and the necessity of sectoral investments. It was established in 1985 by the Ministries of Mines, Energy, Trade and Industry, but in 1991 it was transformed into a government program. Procel uses resources of Eletrobras, the Global Reversion Reserve (RGR) and international entities.
National System Operator (ONS) Private agent established to coordinate and control the operation of generation and transmission of electricity in the Brazilian interconnected systems.. The ONS is responsible for the monitoring the power consumption and the level of water in the reservoirs of the major plants in the country. Established by Law 9.468/98 and Decree 2.655/98, had its operation authorized by Aneel through Resolution 351/98.. The control of the operation of the National Interconnected System started on 1st March 1999.
Natural Energy Affluent (ENA) Energy that can be produced with the flow of water of a given river to a reservoir of a hydroelectric plant.
Natural Gas Mix of hydrocarbons, especially methane, odorless and colorless. It is the cleanest of the fossil fuels and enables wide use for heating, cooling, electricity production and other industrial uses. The construction of the pipeline Brazil – Bolivia is allowing increased power generation by thermoelectricity in the country, goal of the Thermoelectric Priority Program (PPT).
Newave Software developed by the Research Center for Energy (Cepel) to be used in the valuation of energy price in the wholesale energy market, called MAE price.
New Energy Energy produced by newly constructed plants, whose investments have not yet been amortized and, for that reason, is more expensive than the old energy.
Non-Manageable Costs Also known as Parcel A or non-manageable costs, costs that are independent of decisions of the concessionaires, such as Fossil Fuel Consumption Account (CCC); Quota for Global Reversion Reserve (RGR); Inspection Fee on Electricity Services (TFSEE); Compensation for Use of Water Resources (CFURH); energy purchased from Itaipu to conventional resale; Charges for the Use of Basic Network; transport the energy generated by Itaipu, and Connection Charges System.
Normative reference value The value of thermal energy produced by natural gas and alternative sources
(biomass, wind and SHP), which have higher costs than those established in single NV. As NV remains as the limit for cost transfer to the consumers, the difference between the two should be covered with CDE’s funds when the energy generation is from alternative sources, or with CIDE’s funds, in the case of thermal energy generated by natural gas. Proposed by Energy Industry Revitalization Commission.
Normative value (NV) Upper limit of energy cost transfer to captive customers. As a fixed value, indicates the price of energy in the long term. In May 2002 the government set a single NV for all power resources.
Nuclear plants Thermoelectric power plants that use nuclear reaction as a source to generate electricity.


Old Energy Energy produced by hydroelectric state plants whose investments have been partially or completely scrapped. Because of this, the price of the energy produced by these plants is lower than that of newly constructed plants that have not yet recovered their investment.
Overage tariff Amount charged according to the demand that exceeds the value contracted or guaranteed in the energy supply contract.


Peak Time Period of three consecutive hours between the range of 17h to 22h, to be defined by each distributor of energy, according to the record of highest consumption. The peak time is checked only on weekdays.
Periodic Review Part of contracts between concessionaries and Aneel, it is held every five years of the contract term to restore economic and financial balance. The value of the “X” factor which will expire at the Annual Readjustments until the next revision is established in this review.
Plan B Program for Energy Consumption Reducing by Energy Cut, established in July 2001 by the GCE during the rationing period. Also called Plan B, the program was presented as a plan for preventive measures, if adopted rationing was not enough to reduce consumption on expected margins. The plan provides emergency measures such as the declaration of holidays and even daily power cuts.
Planning Coordinating Committee of the Electric Sector Expansion (CCPE) (CCPE) Responsible for planning the expansion of the Brazilian electrical systems. It was created in 1999 (Ordinances 150 and 485 MME). Aims to guide government actions to ensure the supply of energy in the levels of quality and quantity demanded by society, to provide a framework for the investment plans of market players and finally define an appropriate expansion of the power grid transmission.
Programme for Energy Development of States and Municipalities Energy for Small Communities (Prodeem) – The program aims to reach isolated poor communities, unmet by conventional electric power network. Attending to these communities is done by using local renewable sources based on self – sustainable to enable economic and social development of these communities. The program, coordinated by the MME was created in 1994.
Provisional Measure – Electric Sector (MP 14) Provisional Measure published in December 200 that deal the hiring of emergency energy, the creation of Proinfra, the extraordinary rate adjustment and the transfer costs of non – manageable (Parcel A) for rates. The MP officiated at the General Agreement of the Electricity Sector.. After voted on Congress, became the law 10.438, enacted in April 2002.
Public Lighting Service that aims to provide light to the public spaces during nighttime or places that require constant lighting during the day.
Public lighting tariff Fee charged to taxpayers by municipalities to fund public lighting.
Public Utilities Official entitled to the federal public service delegated by the grantor through bidding (competition). Utilities can be generators, transmission or distribution companies.
Program of Incentives for Alternative Electricity Sources (Proinfra) Established in April 26, 2002 (Law 10,438), the program aims to expand to 3,420 MW initially, the share of electricity generation in the country from the use of alternative sources such as wind, Small Hydroelectric Plants and Biomass. By law, independently produced that may develop these projects will guarantee purchase of power generated by Eletrobras for a period of 15 years.


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Rationing Use of electricity without waste, and at the same time, without resigning the advantages and convenience it provides.
Reconnection Procedure taken by concessionaires to restore the power supply to a consumer unit, at the request of the same consumer responsible for the fact that led to suspension.
Rectifier Electric device that converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC).
Reluz A program of Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) that aims to promote and implement efficient public urban lighting systems to improve public safety and reduce the cost of municipal administrations, coordinated by Eletrobrás.
Renewable Energy Sources (Alternative Sources) Natural and renewable resource that can be harnessed to generate electric energy as winds, the tidal force, biomass and solar light. Because they are natural, the process of generating energy is less polluting than traditional sources, such as fuel.
Reservoir Location used to store the water needed to drive the turbines of a hydroelectric plant to generate electricity.
Reluz A program of Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) that aims to promote and implement efficient public urban lighting systems to improve public safety and reduce the cost of municipal administrations, coordinated by Eletrobrás.
Reservoir Location used to store the water needed to drive the turbines of a hydroelectric plant to generate electricity.


Safety Curve Assess the minimum water level in the reservoirs of hydroelectric plants necessary to ensure sufficient generation to attend the electricity consumption.
Scheduled shutdowns Previously planned interruptions in electricity supply
Seal tariff Portion of the tariff which is equally divided among all transmission system users to complete the service revenue.
Short-Term Market (spot) Segment of the Wholesale Energy Market where it trades energy uncontracted bilaterally or leftovers of bilateral contracts.
Small Hydroelectric Plants (SHP) Hydroelectric plants with installed capacity of over 1 MW to 30 MW and reservoir area of up to three square kilometers. These plants will also be free from the payment of municipal and state compensation for use of water resources. If installed on the isolated system on the North region, with the aim of replacing the thermal diesel generators, will receive incentive fund formed by the resources of CCC
Social tariff for low-income earners Electricity tariff applied to low-income consumers. The standardization of criteria for the practice of this fee has yet to be determined by the Power Industry Revitalization Commission (CGSE). Currently, each distributor adopts different rules to classify this segment of consumers. The proposal is to develop rules for general application of this classification.
Solar Energy Energy produced by harnessing the sunlight. There are two usages: thermal and photovoltaic. In the thermal efficiency, the sunlight is only used as a heat source for heating systems. In photovoltaic, the sunlight is turned into electric energy.
Stored Energy Energy potentially available in hydroelectric reservoirs, which calculation takes into account the volume of stored water and the generation capacity of the plant.
Substations Electrical installations which transform and transfer electricity power between networks of different voltages, using transformers.
Supply Agreement Contract signed between the utility and the consumer to adjust the Group’s technical characteristics and commercial terms for the supply of electricity.
Surcharge Additional charge applied to the energy consumed beyond the consumption quota established during rationing period of 2001-2002.


Tariff Unit price of electricity or the demand of active power.
Ten Year Plan Document that outlines the indicative planning of the expansion of the electricity sector in order to provide a reference to the market for agents with less uncertainty may develop your strategic planning, seeking competitive advantages.It is prepared by CCPE.
Tension Electrical potential difference between two spots of a circuit. It is also known as voltage.
Thermal Energy The thermal or heat energy is a result of combustion of different materials such as coal, oil and natural gas. It can be converted into mechanical energy through equipment such as the steam machine, internal combustion engines or gas turbines.
Thermal plants (UTE) Facilities in which the chemical energy derived from fossil fuels is converted into electrical energy.
Thermoelectric Priority Program (PPT) Coordinated by the MME, the PPT provides an incentive to the participating companies to guarantee the supply of natural gas for 20 years, the application of the normative value to the distributor and, finally the guarantee, by BNDES, access to the Programme of Financial Support Priority Investments and the Electricity Sector. Created on February 24, 2000, the program boosted during the energy crisis of 2001, within the GCE.
Trader Legal entity specially formed to buy and sell electricity to dealerships, authorized or free consumers.
Transmission tariff Amount charged for the use of energy transmission through a set of grids and substations of 230 kV voltage, known as core network.


Unbundling Separation of generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electric energy within the same company. By the model proposed by the government for the electricity sector, the same company only can engage in one of these activities.
Undulador Installation for converting direct current into alternating current.
Usage and connection agreement gal instrument where the free consumer and concessionaire establish conditions for use of the electrical installation in accordance with specific regulations.



Electric tension measured in volts.


Watt (W) – Unit of power The watt is a derived unit of power, defined as one joule per second, which measures the rate of energy conversion or transfer.
Wet Season Period characterized by rainfall increase . In the Southeast, Central – West and Northeast, the wet season lasts for five consecutive months, from December to April. In the South, the rains are well distributed throughout the year, except for the months of June and July. In the North, with the exception of northern Amazonas and Roraima, the rainfall is concentrated in spring and summer (September to March). In northern Amazonas and Roraima, the rains occur from April to August.
Wholesale Energy Market (MAE) Private company, nonprofit, subject to regulation by ANEEL, recreated in February 2002 (by Provisional Measure 29), replacing the extinguished Asmae. MAE are processed in the commercial activities of buying and selling electricity through bilateral contracts or on a short-term market (spot), restricted to the interconnected systems South / Southeast / Central – West and North / Northeast. The MAE only allows for the transactions of purchase and sale of electric energy between market players.
Wind Power Energy generated from wind power. The kinetic energy of wind is converted by the turbines into mechanical energy which, in its turn, is transformed into electrical energy.


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Yellow tariff Hour-seasonal structured type of tariff which allows a differentiated consumption tariffs to residential consumers according to time of use of electricity.


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Updated on 17 October 2012.